孙中山开国纪念币禁止流通银样币﹝сунь ят - сен открыл мемориал, запрещающий оборот серебряных монет﹞﹝เหรียญเงินหยุดการเดินทางผ่านเหรียญเงิน﹞

此枚钱币为“孙中山开国纪念币禁止流通样币”。正面中央为孙中山侧面像,上环铸有“中华民国”、下环书“开国纪念币”字样,左右为五瓣梅花各一枝,
意为“五权宪法”之意,最外一圈为“禁止流通币样银”字样。此币图案的设计方面更注重精雕细琢,将钱币的字样和纹饰雕琢描摹得恰到好处,
让人观赏起来都感到非常得和谐。此币背面中央为“壹圆”二字,左右各辅以嘉禾图案,每枝一穗三叶,代表“三民主义”之意,珠圈外围铸有英文环绕一周,
左右下方分列六角星图案,最外围为禁止流通样币英文,此币与其他钱币相比身份极为特殊,罕见至极,由于是样币,
民国时期此币不曾在市场上进行流通,具有极高的收藏价值。
铸币背景
1911年12月29 日,经辛亥革命后,已光复的17省代表在南京推选孙中山为中华民国临时大总统。1912年1月3日,中华民国政府宣告成立,
清朝灭亡,在中国持续2000 多年的封建君主专制随之结束。民国成立时,由于币制尚未建立,除四川改铸大汉银币,福建改铸中华元宝外,
主要的造币厂,大都仍沿用前清钢模铸造银币,以供流通需要。由于币制混乱,临时政府财政部长陈锦涛,于民国元年3月11日呈文大总统孙中山,
鼓铸1000万元纪念银币以为整顿。图案采用大总统孙中山肖像,以后的通用银币再改花纹式样。孙中山令财政部行文,同意鼓铸纪念币,并命令其余的通用银币新花纹,
“中间应绘五谷模型,取丰岁足民之义,垂劝农务本之规”,训令财政部速制新模,分令各省造币厂照式鼓铸。
不久,财政部就颁下新模给江南(南京)、湖北、广东等造币厂依式铸造,
这就是“中华民国孙中山像开国纪念币”的由来。
文物研究
开国纪念币图案中的“寓意”寓意注解:
隶书“民”→流行将「民」字最后一划拉长,其解释为推翻满清,象征民主胜利(人民出头),也宣示乃大众的政府。
梅花→左右五瓣梅花各一支,五权宪法意者也。后即以此为国花(五权指:立法权、司法权、行政权、弹劾权和考试权)。
豆、麦穗→民国元年三月二日,孙中山颁布临时大总统令,对新造货币式样作了规定《拟另刊新模,鼓铸纪念币,…其余通用新币,中间应绘五谷模型,取丰岁足民之义,
垂劝农务本之规》【五谷指:稻、黍(即黄米)、稷(即谷子)、麦、菽(即豆)】。
三叶→背,中间壹圆二字,而辅以嘉禾各一支,每支一穗三叶,三民主义意也(三民主义主要包括民族主义、民权主义和民生主义)。
六角星→中国晚清至民国,金银币及铜币上所镌花星有梅花星,菊花星,米字星,十字星,长花星,六瓣星,五角星,六角星及圆点星等多种类别。通常镌于铸币正面中央及背面,
背面侧面两侧,是区分铸币不同版别的重要依据。
经整理文献,发现有以下苏区造币厂仿制过孙小头:
苏维埃闽北分行造币厂:闽浙赣根据地位于福建、浙江、江西三省交界处,由赣东北和闽北两块根据地组成。1932年9月,
苏维埃闽北分行造币厂在闽北崇安县大南坑成立。
1933年1月,仿袁世凯、孙中山头像银币,生产铸造银币,日生产二三百余块,用于到白区采购苏区所需的物资。
川陕苏区造币厂:川陕苏区需到国民党统治区购买军火、电台、印制颜料、布匹、盐等物资。在特定的历史条件下,为解决对外贸易中民国货币不足的问题,
川陕苏区造币厂仿造了一定数量的民国货币。仿造品中有四川汉银币(壹圆)、民国元宝孙小头银币(壹圆)、民国九年袁大头银币(壹圆)等4种及川花200文
、双旗200文等几种。
湘赣省造币厂:1932年10月,湘赣省造币厂在永新县龙门冈老炉下村陈新命家中创办,1933年2月,造币厂后归属中华苏维埃共和国国家银行湘赣省分行,
在设备极端简陋的情况下,
较好地解决了银元花纹和音响等一系列问题,铸造几乎所有国统区流通使用的银圆,如袁大头、孙中山开国纪念币等。
中华苏维埃国家造币厂:隶属于中央苏维埃政府财政部,由原在兴国东村的江西省苏维埃政府造币厂迁址扩建组成,于1931年11月成立,厂址在瑞金洋溪村。
该厂员工人数最多时有180人左右,1932年初春,田野一派生机,造币厂里更是春意浓浓,热闹非凡。
刻模的、熔银的、绞皮的、冲压的、滚边的、洗银的、印花的、包装的,工人们个个热情饱满,在各自的岗位上夜以继日地工作。
造币设备除熔炼、浇铸外还有铸铁冲锥(实物现存瑞金博物馆)、手扳冲床、手摇滚边机,而且能铸造高质量的银洋,
造币厂创造了日铸银币超万元的历史。中华苏维埃国家造币厂内分熔银、校坯、冲床、滚边、洗银、印花及成品包装部。
产品除生产贰角银辅币和伍分、壹分两种铜币以供应苏区内部流通使用外,还生产少量镌有镰刀、斧头图案的壹元银币。
另外该厂的生产任务也包括仿制“袁大头”、孙中山开国纪念币和墨西哥鹰洋,供给外贸部门向国民党统治区购买物资。
中央造币厂铸出的银洋成色足,分量重,很快就在白区享有了很高的信誉,这可恼坏了国民党反动派,他们恐慌至极,
迅速纠集人员,铸造假币,骚扰苏区经济,诋毁苏区货币的声誉。同时,还下令严禁在白区内使用共产党所铸的银洋。一时间,
给苏区的货币交易造成极大的威胁,造币厂也因此暂停生产。
收藏价值
华夏文明上下五千年,历史文化源远流长。每一个历史发展的阶段都是我们国家成长的足迹,银币也正是这历史长河中组成的重要部分。
就其特定的历史时期也使它占据着重要的地位,它不仅代表着近代中国的货币文化,反映了我国近代历史、经济、人文的兴衰和沧桑。
银元材质珍贵,艺术价值高,由贵重金属或白银合金铸造,制作精美,图案考究,文字清秀,内容丰富,银光灿烂,其貌可人,
也具有一定的保值和升值功能。随着 收藏投资热的不断升温,中国近代银币已经成为收藏投资领域中的一匹“黑马”。近年来,
随着收藏投资热的不断升温,近代银币也日渐走俏,且价格一路上扬。尤其是珍品银币,在艺术品市场上表现异常活跃。
而“中华民国开国纪念币银样币”由于存世量极为稀少,故在银元中占据着相当重要的地位。收藏价值极高。
 
                                                  

Sun Yat-sen's founding commemorative coins prohibit the circulation of silver-like coins
This coin is a "sample coin forbidden to circulate in Sun Yat-sen's founding commemorative coin". The front center is a profile of Sun Yat-sen,
with the words "Republic of China" and "Founding Commemorative Coin" cast on the upper ring, one plum blossom each with five petals on the left and right,
meaning "Five Rights Constitution", and the words "No Circulation of Coin-like Silver" on the outermost ring.
The design of this coin pattern pays more attention to fine carving, and the words and ornamentation of the coin are carved and described properly,
which makes people feel very harmonious when watching it. The word "one circle" is in the center of the back of this coin,
which is supplemented by golden harvest pattern on the left and right sides, and each branch has one ear and three leaves,
which represents the meaning of "Three People's Principles". English is cast around the bead circle for a week,
and hexagonal star patterns are arranged on the left and right lower parts. The outermost part is English,
which is a sample currency that is forbidden to circulate. Compared with other coins, this currency is extremely special and rare.
Because it is a sample currency, it never circulated in the market during the Republic of China, and has a very high collection value.
Coinage background
On December 29, 1911, after the Revolution of 1911, representatives of 17 provinces that had been restored to China elected Sun Yat-sen as the interim president
of the Republic of China in Nanjing. On January 3, 1912, the government of the Republic of China was proclaimed, the Qing Dynasty perished, and the
feudal autocratic monarchy that lasted for more than 2,000 years in China ended. When the Republic of China was founded, because the
monetary system had not yet been established, most of the major mints still used the former Qing steel mold to cast silver coins for circulation,
except Sichuan to cast Dahan silver coins and Fujian to cast Chinese ingots. Due to the confusion of the monetary system, Chen Jintao,
the finance minister of the interim government, submitted a letter to President Sun Yat-sen on March 11th of the first year of the Republic of China,
casting 10 million yuan of commemorative silver coins for rectification. The pattern adopts the portrait of Sun Yat-sen, the president,
and the pattern style will be changed for the future general silver coins. Sun Yat-sen ordered the Ministry of Finance to write articles,
agreed to drum-cast commemorative coins, and ordered the rest of the general silver coins to have new patterns,
"the grain model should be drawn in the middle, taking the meaning of being rich in years and full of people, and advising the regulations of agricultural business",
instructing the Ministry of Finance to make new models quickly, and ordering the mints in various provinces to drum-cast according to the pattern. Soon,
the Ministry of Finance awarded a new model to mints in Jiangnan (Nanjing), Hubei, Guangdong, etc.
This is the origin of the "Founding Commemorative Coin of Sun Yat-sen Image of the Republic of China".
Cultural relic research
Annotation of "moral" in the pattern of founding commemorative coins;
The official script "people" → popularity lengthened the last stroke of the word "people", which was interpreted as overthrowing the Manchu Dynasty,
symbolizing the victory of democracy (the people came forward) and declaring that it was the government of the masses.
Plum blossom → one for each of the left and right five petals, and those who have the meaning of the five rights constitution also. After that,
it is regarded as the national flower (five powers: legislative power, judicial power, administrative power,
impeachment power and examination power).
Beans and wheat ears → On March 2, the first year of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen issued an interim presidential decree, which stipulated the new currency style.
"It is planned to publish a new model and drum commemorative coins ... The rest of the general new coins should be painted with a grain model in the middle.
Take the meaning of being rich and full of people, and advise the regulations of agriculture." [Grain refers to: rice, millet (ie yellow rice), millet), wheat,
Three leaves → back, one circle in the middle, and one branch in Jiahe, each with one ear and three leaves,
meaning the Three People's Principles (the Three People's Principles mainly include nationalism, civil rights and people's livelihood).
Six-pointed stars → From the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, the stars inscribed on gold, silver and copper coins include plum blossom stars,
chrysanthemum stars, rice stars, cross stars, long flower stars, six-lobed stars, five-pointed stars, six-pointed stars and dot stars.
It is usually inscribed in the center and back of the front and both sides of the back, which is an important basis for distinguishing different versions of coins.
After sorting out the literature, it is found that the following Soviet mint copied Sun Xiaotou:
Mint of Soviet Minbei Branch: Fujian-Zhejiang-Jiangxi base area is located at the junction of Fujian, Zhejiang and Jiangxi provinces,
and consists of two base areas: northeast Jiangxi and north Fujian. In September 1932, Soviet Minbei Branch Mint was established in Danankeng,
Chong 'an County, northern Fujian. In January 1933, he imitated Yuan Shikai and Sun Yat-sen's heads as silver coins,
and produced two or three hundred pieces of silver coins every day, which were used to purchase materials needed by the Soviet Area in Baiqu.
Mint in Sichuan-Shaanxi Soviet Area: Sichuan-Shaanxi Soviet Area needs to buy arms, radio stations, printing pigments, cloth,
salt and other materials in Kuomintang areas. Under specific historical conditions, in order to solve the problem of insufficient currency of the Republic of China in foreign trade,
the Mint in Sichuan-Shaanxi Soviet Area copied a certain amount of currency of the Republic of China. There are four kinds of counterfeit goods,
such as Sichuan Han silver coin (one yuan), Yuanbao Sunxiaotou silver coin (one yuan), and Yuan Datou silver coin (one yuan) in nine years of the Republic of China.
There are several kinds of counterfeit goods, such as Sichuan flower with 200 characters and double flag with 200 characters.
Hunan-Jiangxi Mint: In October 1932, Hunan-Jiangxi Mint was founded in the home of Xin Chen, Laoluxia Village, Longmengang, Yongxin County. In February 1933,
the Mint was owned by Hunan-Jiangxi Branch of the National Bank of the Soviet Republic of China. Under the condition of extremely poor equipment,
it solved a series of problems such as silver dollar pattern and sound, and forged silver coins for circulation in almost all areas under national control,
such as Yuan Datou and Sun Yat-sen's founding commemorative coins.
Chinese Soviet National Mint: It belongs to the Ministry of Finance of the Central Soviet Government. It was established in
November 1931 by relocating and expanding the former Jiangxi Soviet Mint in Xingguo East Village, and its site is in Yangxi Village,
Ruijin. The factory has about 180 employees at the maximum. In the early spring of 1932, the fields were full of vitality,
and the mint was full of spring and excitement. Molded, silver-melted, twisted, stamped, rolled, silver-washed, printed and packaged,
all the workers are full of enthusiasm and work day and night in their respective posts.
In addition to smelting and casting, the minting equipment also includes cast iron punch (existing in Ruijin Museum), manual punch press and hand-operated
edging machine, and can cast high-quality silver ocean. The mint has created a history of casting more than 10,000 yuan of silver coins every day.
The Chinese Soviet National Mint is divided into silver melting, blank checking, punching, piping, silver washing, printing and finished product packaging departments. Besides producing
two cents of silver coins and five cents and one cent of copper coins for circulation in the Soviet Area,
the products also produce a small amount of one-yuan silver coins engraved with sickle and axe patterns. In addition,
the factory's production tasks also include copying "Yuan Datou", Sun Yat-sen's founding commemorative coin
s and Mexican Eagle Ocean, and supplying foreign trade departments to purchase materials from Kuomintang areas.
The silver and foreign products cast by the
Central Mint were of good quality and heavy weight,
and soon enjoyed a high reputation in the White Area, which annoyed the Kuomintang reactionaries.
They panicked, quickly gathered people, forged counterfeit currency, harassed the Soviet economy,
and slandered the reputation of Soviet currency. At the same time,
it was also forbidden to use the silver ocean cast by the Communist Party in the White Area. At that time,
it caused a great threat to the currency trading in the Soviet area, and the mint therefore suspended production.
Collection value
Chinese civilization has lasted for 5,000 years, with a long history and culture. Every stage of historical development is the footprint of our country's growth,
and silver coins are also an important part of this long history. It also occupies an important position in its specific historical period.
It not only represents the monetary culture of modern China, but also reflects the rise and fall and vicissitudes of modern history,
economy and humanities in China. Silver dollar is precious in material and high in artistic value. It is made of precious metal or silver alloy.
It has exquisite production, exquisite pattern, delicate writing, rich content, bright silver light and lovely appearance,
and also has certain functions of maintaining and appreciating value. With the constant warming of collection investment,
silver coins in modern China have become a "dark horse" in the field of collection investment. In recent years,
with the constant warming of collection investment, modern silver coins have become increasingly popular, and prices have been rising all the way.
Especially the precious silver coin, is very active in the art market. However,
the "Silver Sample Coin of the Founding Commemorative Coin of the Republic of China" occupies a very important position in the silver dollar
because of its rare existence in the world
.
肖**            139****1079
 

孙中山开国纪念币 ZB800082

2019-10-25
孙中山开国纪念币 ZB800082

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